The Greater Horn of Africa, as defined by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), comprises eight countries (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda).
Each of the countries that make up the region has its own challenges. However, a common problem in the region is that of persistent droughts cause food insecurity, conflicts over dwindling water resources, and general economic instability.
War often breaks out as a result of the above challenges, with the struggle for control of resources cascading from the top administrations to villages and clans.
In Kenya, for instance, tribes in drought affected areas fight over limited resources, with communities wholly depending on livestock and exhibiting a complete pastoralist lifestyle. This is so in regions occupied by the Pokot, Turkana, Marakwet tribes of Kenya and Karamoja people who spread over from Uganda.
Apart from ethnic clashes and cattle rustling in parts of Ethiopia, the sidelining of the Oromo tribe and the Oromia region by the Ethiopian regime has sparked protests and mass killings. Many people from the Region are fleeing persecution and oppression.
Somali’s crisis began after the overthrow of the Siad Barre regime in 1991/1992. Since then, the country has been in conflict, with the ruthless rule of the now terrorist group al shaabab. Over half a million people have fled Somalia since then. Drought and hunger have also coupled to the problem of insecurity.
Today, despite peace efforts by local and international humanitarian organizations, Northern Kenya and Eastern Uganda are still considered insecure due to frequent cattle raids, terrorism of civilians and the killing of hundreds of people.